How to change user’s UID&GID and what comes out of that – Managing your servers can streamline the performance of your team by allowing them to complete complex tasks faster. Plus, it can enable them to detect problems early on before they get out of hand and compromise your business. As a result, the risk of experiencing operational setbacks is drastically lower.
But the only way to make the most of your server management is to perform it correctly. And to help you do so, this article will share nine tips on improving your server management and fix some problem about linux, mysql, user-management, , .
I have MySQL data files on a thumb drive that are used on two hosts where
mysql user’s UIDs differ. As a result, MySQL fails to start when it’s files have
0700 perms and an unknown UID as an owner.
I failed to find how to change MySQL’s umask (and actually I don’t like the idea of sharing these files to everyone), therefore I want to change UID of
mysql user on both hosts so the files belong to the same user.
I’m going to change the UID and to
chown all files owned by old mysql UID to the new user:
usermod --uid 900 --gid 900 mysql # assign the new uid olduid=67 find / -user $olduid -group $olduid -print0 | xargs -0 chown "mysql:mysql"
Is this sufficient for an application to work in general case?
Maybe, I have better options?
I’ve made some research and noticed two things one should take into account when changing UIDs&GIDs:
- Numeric UID and GID do not always match: in my case
id -u mysql=120 and
id -g mysql=127
- Not all files are owned by user ‘mysql’ and group ‘mysql’ simultaneously: these files should be searched for separately.
Therefore, we first change UID and GID:
user=mysql new_uid=600 old_uid=$(id -u $user) group=mysql new_gid=600 old_gid=$(id -g $user) sudo usermod -u $new_uid $user sudo groupmod -g $new_gid $group
find for files owned by the late user and group separately: ‘user=mysql’ goes to one file, ‘group=mysql’ goes to another file. Also we exclude some directories from
find traversing tree:
chownlist=$(tempfile) chgrplist=$(tempfile) sudo find / ( ( -path "/proc" -or -path "/sys" -or -path "/dev" ) -prune ) -or ( ( -user $old_uid -fprint0 "$chownlist" ) , ( -group $old_gid -fprint0 "$chgrplist" ) )
And only now it’s okay to change owners and groups for these files found:
cat "$chownlist" | xargs -0 sudo chown $user cat "$chgrplist" | xargs -0 sudo chown :$group sudo rm "$chownlist" "$chgrplist"
Finally, we check if everything went okay: find files owned by unknown UIDs of GIDs:
sudo find / ( ( -path "/proc" -or -path "/sys" -or -path "/dev" ) -prune ) -or ( -nouser -or -nogroup -print )
Hope this helps someone.
Yeah, that’s pretty much all you need to do. The only files which should need changing are the logs and data files.
You might want to use find | xargs rather than a loop though.